At the end of the attached speech, Senator Warren refers to the most difficult possibility; passing new amendment to deal with the Citizen United SCOTUS decision.


Amendments were in fact passed once before to correct an other era’s poetical control by corporate interests. Both the 16th and 17th amendments were passed during our last “Progressive Era”

The 16th permitted Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. The 17th established the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote.


 This Thomas Nast cartoon entitled “THE BOSSES OF THE SENATE” during the First Gilded Age of the late 19th Century illustrates the similarities: If that was temporarily repairable, so is today’s problem.

History tells us that this is a constant battle and cycle. Every few decades, muckrakers, the people and their leaders have to rise up against the “Octopus” and the rulers of “The Jungle” that control politics.

Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens, and others wrote. Teddy Roosevelt, FDR, Truman, Kennedy, and Johnson governed in each succeeding generation to “fight the power”, and “we the people” must do our part by supporting the presidential candidate most likely to do so today.